Natur

 

This is only a page of knowledge!

 

Did you know?

 

That bees need to visit 2 million flowers to make a pound of honey in a summer and makes it possible for the flowers to multiply this is what we call the creation of God the logistics of nature!

 

Bellow you find different Trade Histories and ancient histories you probably did not know:

 

The Illyrians  

 

The Middle East 

 

The Vikings

 

The Silk Road

 

 

Did you know? That Albania and Kosova(anciant Illyrians) has Illyrian castels that are older than 1200 BC and the history of the Trade

 

Illyria the history of the European trade: and ancient history and Timeline of the area

 

Shkodër (ancient Scodra), city in northwestern Albania, is probably the oldest trading city in europe. Shkodra (pronounced: Shko-drah) was known as Scodra. It was founded around the 5th century B.C. on the hills around the Castle of Shkodra (Rozafa). It was the center of the Illyrian(Ancient Albanians) tribe Labeat, and during the rule of King Gentius (Gent) in which he minted coins - and that of Queen Teuta, it became the capital of the Illyrian kingdom. It was occupied by the Romans in the year 168 B.C. Shkodra remained in the province of Illyricum, and it became an important trade and military route continuing to Kosova and further.

Illyria was populated by a multitude of Illyrian tribes, living along the eastern shore of the Adriatic Sea and inland in adjoining mountains. Among the noted tribes were the Dardani in Kosova, the Jagyges (who migrated to Apulia and Calabria in Italy in the 8th Century BC), Veneti (who migrated to northern Italy in the 7th Century BC), Dalmati, Pannonians, Enkalayes, Taulantes, Epirotes (a.k.a. Pelasgians), Ardriaii, and the Ardianes. The first known Illyrian king was Hyllus (The Star) whose death was recorded in 1225 B.C.

1225 B.C.
Earliest known Illyrian king, Hyllus (Mening Star in ancient Illyrian and now day Albanian) dies.

588 B.C.

Appolonia build about 588 B.C. now day Fier(Albania) When Illyria was occupied by Roman Empiere it became center of knowlage and traning kamp for all special forces of Rome such as the Pretorian and later also for the first Emperor of  the Roman Empiere, Emperor Augustus(Octavian) was also trained in Appolonia.

4’th Century B.C.

The first great king was Bardhylus (Meaning White Star in ancient Illyrian and now day Albanian), who united Illyria and Molossia (Epirus) and, who along with his son Kleitos, successfully fought against Macedonian expansion and annexed large portions of western Macedonia. In 385 BC, Bardyhlus, with allied troops provided by Dionysius I of Syracuse, launched a campaign against Epeiros (Epirus). Their Macedonian conquests were recovered by King Philip by 357 BC, and Alexander the Great in 335 BC

312 B.C.
King Glauk of Illyria expelled the Greek colonists from Durrës.

232 B.C.
With the death of Illyrian King Agron in 232 BC, Queen Teuta assumed the throne of Illyria and engaged her navy against Roman commercial shipping on the Adriatic, prompting the Roman Senate to declare war. After two years of protracted war on land and sea, the Roman army under Santumalus and Alvinus forced Queen Teuta to submit to a Roman peace (227 B.C.). Continued Illyrian piracy prompted renewal of the war in 219 BC

165 B.C.  

In 171 BC, King Genthius(Gent) of Illyria sided with Perseus of Macedonia against the Romans. After Roman defeat, the Romans brought Genthius to Rome as a captive, then banished him, leaving his kingdom to disintegrate. Dalmatia seceded soon after, and Rome occupied Skhodra as a Roman colony, which they renamed Illyricum in 168 BC. Rome then conquered Dalmatia in 78-77 BC, converted Illyricum into a full-fledged Roman province in 59 BC, annexed southern Illyria in 35-34 BC, pacified the remaining Illyrian tribes in 23 BC, and added Pannonia in the north in 9 BC.

 

00 The birth of Jesus Christ

First Century A.D.
Christianity comes to Illyrian populated areas 

 

 

 

 

Did you know? The Arab trade and the ancient history and timeline 

The first record of spices being used comes from the Assyrians (3000 BC). What is recorded is a myth that claims that the gods drank sesame wine on the night before they created the earth. Use of sesame as a flavouring is so ancient and widespread that it is difficult now to know the true origin of this spice. Though recent genetic evidence suggests that the plant originated near the Indian subcontinent. Thus the Assyrian myth represents our first historical evidence for an ancient spice trade.

Further evidence is provided by Egyptian records where, as far back as 2600 BC, the labourers building Cheops' great pyramid were fed Asiatic spices to give them strength. Archaeological evidence from Sumeria (2400 BC) also suggests that cloves were popular in Syria (cloves could only be attained from the Indonesian Spice Islands, the Moluccas). Strong evidence that trade with the spice islands themselves is truly ancient.

Almost a millennium later, the remarkable Egyptian Ebers papyrus (dating to 1550 BC) lists spices used for both medicinal and embalming procedures. Cassia and cinnamon, named in the papyrus, were essential for embalming; as were anise, marjoram and cumin — all used to rinse-out the body cavities of the worthy dead. Of these spices, cassia and cinnamon are both native to south-east Asia.

Hammurabi (1792–1750 BC) in his legal codes introduced severe penalties for sloppy or unsuccessful surgeons. This led to the use of medicinal spices in Sumaria and engendered a major spice trade there.

Egyptian records reveal that one of the female pharaoh Hatshepsut's (1473–1458 BC) most famous exploits was her expedition to Punt (modern Somalia) where aromatic herbs and spices were gained and brought back to Egypt. Examination of the mummy of her descendant, Rameses II (died 1213 BC) revealed that he had peppercorns inserted into each nostril.

All these separate pieces of evidence point towards the ancientness of the trade between the Middle East and India, China, South-east Asia and the Spice Islands of Indonesia. We also gain an indication of the economic importance of spices. Certainly they were worth legalizing, saving for royal burials and mounting large and expensive expeditions to go in search of them.

During these ancient times spices were probably traded from local merchant to local merchant and made their way slowly from east to west (with the volume of each spice decreasing and its economic importance increasing with each trade).

- 1470 BC Queen Hatshepsut’s journey to the land of Punt

- 1400 BC Earliest alphabetic script develops in coastal Syria. Erliest evidence of use, so far in the Mahram Bilqis

- 1360 BC King Tutankhamun reigns in Egypt.

- 1200 BC Hebrew Exodus from Eqypt. Earliest attested alphabet usage in South Arabia.

-   950 BC Reign of King Solomon in Jerusalem. Reigh of the legendary Queen of Sheba in Marib

-   700 BC Sabaeans colonize part of Ethiopia

-   539 BC City of Babylon falls to Persians

-   332 BC Alexander the Grate conquers the Near East(Anatolia, Eqypt, Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, Iran)

-     24 BC Unsuccessful expedition of the Roman general Aelius Gaulls into Arabia, reaching perhaps as far as     Marib, during reign of Augustus

-     00 The birth of Jesus Christ

-   545 AD Christian Ethopian King Abraha campaigns in South Arabia and erects a church somewhere at Marib.

-   570 AD The birth of Prophet Mohammad   

 

Did you know? The Vikings were traders from the North

Viking Northan Trade: Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden and ancient history and Timeline of the area.

Traded commodities included coins, ceramics, and materials from specialized crafts such as copper-alloy casting and glass-working (beads and vessels). Some commodities could make or break a colony: Greenland's Norse relied on trade in walrus ivory and hide and polar bear skins to support their difficult farming strategies. Beginning near the end of 10th century AD, arctic Norway cod played a major role in Viking trade, when commercial fishing and sophisticated drying techniques allowed them to expand the market throughout Europe.

In the Viking homeland, major trading centers included Ribe, Kaupang, Birka, Ahus, Truso, Grop Stromkendorf and Hedeby. Goods were brought to these centers and then dispersed into the Viking society. Many of these site assemblages include an abundance of a soft yellow earthenware called Badorf-ware, produced in the Rhineland; Sindbaek has argued that these items, rarely found on non-trading nodes, were used as containers to bring goods to places, rather than as trade items.

The Vikings were prolific seafaring warrors from Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden . The early Danish timeline reflect the history of the Viking raiders.

- 793 AD The Ancient Vikings first raid in England. The Monastery of St. Cuthbert at Lindisfarne is  sacked

- 844 AD The Vikings raid Seville in Spain

- 845 AD The Vikings, led by Ragnor, travel up the River Seine in France

- 845 AD The French King pays a ransom to prevent the saking of Paris

- 860 AD The Vikings attack Constantinopel(Now day Istanbul)

- 862 AD The Vikings Found Novgorod in Russia

- 874 AD The Vikings settle Iceland

- 900 AD The Vikings raid the Meditertanean Coasts

- 911 AD The Vikings under Rollo are settled in Normandy

- 981 AD The Viking Erik the Red discovers Greenland

- 986 AD The Vikings land in Canada

- 1000 AD Greenland and Iceland are converted to Christianity by The Vikings

- 1001 AD The Viking Leif Eriksson(also caled Leif the happy) son of Erik the Red reaches the American coast

- 1035 AD King Canute dies and heir to Denmark and England is Hardacnut.

- 1042 AD Hardacnut dies suddenly and Edward the confessor regains the throne of England

- 1050 AD The Vikings found the city of Oslo in Norway which is established as a major trade center.

 

Did you know? The ancient history of the Silk road.

 

China Silk Road: The moste known trade history in the world China, West Asia, Africa and Europe: and ancient hirtory and Timeline of the area

The Silk Road was also called "Silu" in Chinese. It was a general name for the ancient strategic transportation channel which started from China and passed through Central Asia, West Asia, Africa and Europe. In the 19th century, when the name of Silk Road was first used by a German geographer, it just included the land road from China's Xinjiang to central Asia. Later it was expanded gradually and reached West Asia, Europe and Africa. It took in land and water routes. It is not only an important transportation route connecting the ancient world, but also a synonym for economic and cultural exchanges between the Western world and the oriental world.

The 7000 mile route spanned China, Central Asia, Northern India, and the Parthian and Roman Empires. It connected the Yellow River Valley to the Mediterranean Sea and passed through places such as Chinese cities Kansu and Sinkiang and present-day countries Iran, Iraq and Syria.

 4000-2205 BC Neolithic China  

c. 2205-256 BC Bronze Age

The Chinese discover the usefulness of bronze metal and begin to make tools and weapons with it.

c. 2205-1766 Hsia (or Xia) Dynasty

This dynasty was previously believed to be legendary. Recent information has proven its existence.

Legend says that this dynasty began when a man named Yu drained the waters of the flood (a parallel story to the experiences of Noah). He became the first king of the Hsia Dynasty.

c. 1766-1050 BC Shang Dynasty

The Shang Dyansty overthrows the Hsia Dynasty because the last Hsia king had become very corrupt.

The Shang leaves the earliest evidence of a writing system as well as the first historical records. The Shang society also begins to divide into upper and lower classes. Its military makes use of horse and chariot. These technologies prove a formidable force against the barbarian tribes and other small city-states around it.

The Shang worship their ancestors, who intercede with the gods on behalf of the living. There is a supreme god called "Deity Above" or "Lord on High." Underneath him are smaller gods of things found in nature like sun, moon and wind. These gods serve as courtiers to the "Deity Above."

1050-256 BC Chou (or Zhou) Dynasty

The Chou Dynasty conquers the Shang Dynasty. The Chou's origins are unknown. The earliest record of their existence is in the Wei Valley.

Some philosophies gain influence during this time including Taoism, Confucianism, and Buddhism.

The Chou dynasty is divided into two sections: Western or Early Chou, and Eastern or Later Chou.

The Western Chou are attacked by nomads from the Northwest who are searching for food. The remaining people from the ruling class who survive the attack establish a new capital. This capital is located east of their old lands in a town called Loyang (or Luoyang).

Eastern Chou is further divided into two sections:

1) The "Spring and Autumn" (named after an important book about the philosophies that were developing during that time) lasts from 771-481 BC.

2) The Warring States period lasts from 481-256 BC.

China is ruled by an emperor, who claims to have control over all of China. This period experiences one of the most prosperous and culturally advanced dynasties, the Han Dyansty. However, the period ends in dissolution and disunity.

256-206 BC Ch'in (or Qin) Dynasty

The Ch'in, a group of people coming from the western part of China in the Wei River Valley, overthrow the Chou Dynasty. By 211 BC, the first emperor named Ch'in Shihuangdi, reunifies the city-states that had broken apart and fought against one another.

The first Great Wall of China that went from the Pacific Ocean into the middle of Asia. The project connects the existing dirt defense walls to keep out the barbarians on the frontier. (The stone wall standing today was rebuilt during the Ming Dynasty many years later.) This and other large constructions like roads and canals make the burden of taxes heavy. .

206 BC- 220 AD Han Dynasty

The Han Dynasty is divided into two sections:

 206 BC-9 AD Early or Western Han

The general Kao Tzu wins over the other conflicting military commanders who want control. He unifies and consolidates China once again.